Kia ora, welcome to our Kiwifruit Newsletter

eNews Kiwifruit December 2021 Edition

James Trevelyan
Managing Director

When I was a student living in Auckland, I never had too much money in my back pocket. Any repairs that needed to be done to keep my trusty 1968 Mark 2 Ford Cortina on the road had to be done by myself. Short trips around Auckland never seemed to be such an issue, it was the long trips back to Te Puke that were the challenge. Should I hitchhike or take the car? There was one occasion it took me three attempts before I made it back to Te Puke. It never seemed to be that big a deal to fix the Cortina, as long as I had my Cortina handbook. I would lift the bonnet and just sort it out; there never seemed to be too many moving parts under the bonnet. These days when I lift the bonnet of my current car, there are plastic covers and a maze of wires and pipes. I have no idea what’s going on. However, the heart of the engine still has pistons and valves, just like the Cortina had. The progression of all the development around the engine is symptomatic of the world we live in today. There just seems to be so many more moving parts.

As we plot and plan for the forthcoming season, it’s got that modern day engine feel about it. A lot of extra pipes and wires. As the weather changes, what is this doing to expected crop volumes and dry matter? With labour being tight, what implication will this have on the fruit quality? As regards to COVID, how do we manage and morph to be the safest business in the world to work at? We need to work together with Zespri, MPI and the rest of the industry as we deal with the demands of China. We need to work with our business partners to cope with large lead times and high inflationary pressures. We need to stay in control of quality as fruit volumes increase, as we aim to maintain a healthy open mind to deal with a new tomorrow.

However, at the centre of all these opportunities, just like the pistons in my dear old Cortina, is a piece of real food – a fresh piece of fruit full of goodness. We need to carefully wrap it up and send it on its way and deal with the increasing moving parts to deliver it to those willing consumers.

As this is the last newsletter for 2021, I will take the opportunity to wish everyone a safe and enjoyable Christmas full of laughter and good company.

Many thanks,

James Trevelyan.


Phil Allison
Information Systems Manager

Fruit Counting

Fruit counting on orchards for our February crop estimate will start on Tuesday 11th January and finish approximately 13th February. This season most of the counting will again be done with the electronic counting machine, developed by Trevelyan’s and EMAC Electrical. This works by taking a series of photos down specific rows in each block then having a computer analyse those photos to count the fruit that is in them.

For reporting, counts done manually (as in the past) will continue to have the count data available on the grower portal as soon as counting is completed on orchard. For the machine counts though, there will be a delay before these are available. This is due to the time taken to process the images and get fruit counts back into our database. The actual scorecards and crop estimate reports will look the same regardless of how your orchard was counted.

Any orchard that is machine counted will have a separate visit to collect the fruit needed for fruit weight, dry matter, and reject assessments. The team doing the fruit collection will also manually count some orchards to confirm the machine is getting the correct counts.

15% Supplier Accountability

15% supplier accountability involves extra checking in the markets (15% compared to 5%) and more of the costs of quality sheeted back to the suppliers of the fruit causing in-market costs. The programme is bulk funded with a set per tray payment made and any costs are deducted from this amount.

To date we have results back for Gold3 that includes four weeks of shipments to China, six weeks to Japan, eight weeks to Korea and Taiwan (the Asian markets are served by smaller vessels and containers, so results are reported in 2-week groups), and 10 vessels to Europe.

Market (Trev)#ShipsTrays$$/tray


Market (Ind)#ShipsTrays$$/tray

For Hayward there are four weeks of shipments to Korea and Taiwan, and five vessels to Europe. There are no results available yet for China or Japan.

Market (Trev)#ShipsTrays$$/tray


Market (Ind)#ShipsTrays$$/tray



Phil Allison
Information Systems Manager

Indicative KiwiStart And Time Rates

The indicative rates have been approved by ISG.


The factors that have impacted KiwiStart rates are:

  • Full bloom dates have been updated for Hayward conventional and Hayward organic. NB in future seasons full bloom dates will no longer be updated.
  • The reversion to the 2020 method for calculating TZGs has been incorporated for Gold3 conventional. NB TZG caps by size remain in the model.
  • There is a one day shift in the ISO calendar this season.
  • Updated fruit values have been used.
  • There is a dry matter factor added to reflect KiwiStart orchards having dry matters that are above the average curve when harvested. At this time of the season the average curve shows orchards would have failed to meet the KiwiStart criteria.

The result is rates that are slightly higher than last season for Hayward conventional and organics. For Gold3 the result is rates that are lower than 2020 for conventional fruit and higher for organic fruit.

The following tables show the change from last season to next:

Hayward Conventional

ISO Week2021 RateTaste & FV ChangeISO Day ShiftFull Bloom DateRemoved 2021 UpliftCommercial Lift2022 Rate

Hayward Organic

ISO Week2021 RateTaste & FV ChangeISO Day ShiftFull Bloom DateRemoved UpliftCommercial Uplift2022 Rate

Gold 3 Conventional

ISO WeekDate Start2021 RateTZGTaste & FV ChangeISO Day ShiftDM Scale FactorRemoved 2021 UpliftCommercial Lift2022 Rate

Gold 3 Organic

ISO WeekDate Start2021 RateTZGTaste & FV ChangeISO Day ShiftDM Scale FactorRemoved 2021 UpliftCommercial Lift2022 Rate

Time Payments

  • Fruit values, taste payments, and maximum taste payments have all been updated in the model.
  • Labour costs have been increased along with staff payments. These will be reviewed at the start of the 2022 harvest to make sure they reflect post-harvest staff payments.
  • Fruit loss and repack rates have been changed to include data from the 2021 season, and remove data from the 2020 season which is seen as an outlier (repack and fruit loss were exceptionally low in 2020).
  • The reduced TZG caps have been incorporated into the model for Gold3 conventional.
  • The time rates will be updated as harvest starts next season in case there are any movements in labour costs that need to be incorporated.

These changes have combined to give time payments that are generally higher than they were in 2021.

Gordon Skipage
Head of Technical

KiwiGreen Protocols Incentivised For 2022

Zespri is offering a 25c/tray incentive for KPIN/varieties that meet KiwiGreen Market Access Requirements for the 2022 season. The incentive applies as long as growers adhere to the KiwiGreen protocols and is not influenced by results at packing. The KiwiGreen requirements haven’t fundamentally changed. However, there is renewed emphasis on making sure the recommended actions are undertaken (if an action is required). In short, if the required action (i.e. spray) is not undertaken, you may lose eligibility for any incentive for the entire KPIN/variety.

There are two key changes that growers should be aware of to achieve the KiwiGreen incentive. If monitoring results for scale, leafroller or wheat bug habitat exceed any threshold, the appropriate action must be taken (i.e. conduct a spray or manually remove weeds) AND:

  • The action must be recorded in your spray diary within 21 days of the action being taken AND
  • Evidence of the action being taken MUST be kept. This evidence will be requested during your GAP audit. Acceptable evidence will be:
  1. Receipt of proof of purchase of corresponding product within the 6-month period immediately prior to application OR
  2. An invoice from a spray contractor for the relevant spray OR
  3. Subsequent Pest Monitoring results to show pest pressure has reduced OR
  4. Photographic timestamped evidence of wheat bug habitat management
    • This point is important if a grower has “manually removed” weeds from the loadpad – a photo must be taken as proof that this has been done. Evidence of the photo will be requested at the next ZespriGAP audit.

Further information on KiwiGreen and the Key Incentive Requirements can be found on the Zespri Canopy here.

Crop Protection For Early Summer

As always, take care when spraying any product during the skin sensitive period – spray only as required and only in good drying conditions to minimise your risk of skin stain. If in doubt, leave it out!


The highest period of risk for leafroller damage to fruitlets is over the first seven weeks from fruitset. It is important to complete an “informal” round of monitoring during this time – simply spend some time walking your rows looking for leafroller or signs of damage. An application of Bt (i.e. BioBit DF) is highly recommended to manage the issue.

The formal monitoring period for leafroller starts five weeks after fruitset for green/red varieties and seven weeks for Gold3 so leafroller sprays applied after this time will require formal monitoring results from a Pest Monitoring Centre. If your KiwiGreen results determine that you should spray, remember to record the spray activity in your Zespri Spray Diary within 21 days of the application in order to be eligible for the KiwiGreen incentive.

Refer to the Trevelyan’s Summer Spray Guide or give me a call at Trevelyan’s if you require more information.


Applications of 1% oil should be used sparingly as this can cause significant phytotoxicity/staining if applied in poor conditions or within seven days of copper.

The formal monitoring period for scale starts eight weeks after fruitset for all varieties. Zespri advocates a 1% “summer mineral oil” application to Gold3 in mid-February if scale levels exceed the KiwiGreen threshold of 4%. If your KiwiGreen scale result is above 4% and you want to be eligible for the KiwiGreen incentive, a summer oil must be applied (with proof of the application). Information on the safe use of oil on Gold3 can be found here.

Wheat Bug

A wheat bug habitat assessment is now included as part of routine KiwiGreen monitoring required by Zespri. Your monitoring team will be assessing your loadout pads (and surrounding area) looking for known host weeds of wheat bug including:

  • Wireweed (Polygonum aviculare)
  • Allseed (Polycarpon tetraphyllum)
  • Cudweed (Gamochaeta spicata and Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum)
  • Sandspurry (Spergularia rubra)

With KiwiGreen monitoring due to start in mid-January, it’s best to manage your loadpads throughout summer, ensuring none of these weeds are located in or around the area at monitoring time. Control methods include manually removing the weeds (i.e. by hand) or applying a herbicide – refer to Section 7.7 of the Zespri Crop Protection Standard for a list of allowed herbicides. Don’t spray weeds with herbicide too close to harvest as this may force wheat bug into adjacent fruit bins (and onto fruit) as they seek a new habitat.

If removing weeds by hand, remember to take photographic timestamped evidence of wheat bug habitat management as evidence of the photo will be requested at your next ZespriGAP audit.

For more information on wheat bug refer to the KiwiGreen Factsheet on the Canopy website here.

Passionvine Hopper

PVH nymph populations are building and are easily found on host plants such as citrus, hydrangea, privet, jasmine, wisteria, mahoe, flax, and various ferns. Monitor your orchard boundaries and if nymph populations are found, contact the Zespri Crop Protection team to discuss suitable spray options.

Organic growers suggest that an application of organic mineral oil plus Oroboost to boundaries is effective at controlling nymphs, or an application of citric acid (5kg/1000L water) seems to provide an effective barrier to PVH. While citric acid does not kill PVH, observations are that the nymphs/adults move on to find a more suitable environment.

To control PVH nymphs in the orchard, use a pyrethrum-based spray (i.e. ZETaPY/Pyganic) – but as these sprays break down quickly in UV light they are best applied late in the day. Always start spraying from affected inner rows first and work out towards the shelter (as this helps push PVH toward the outside of the orchard).

For more information on PVH refer to the KiwiTech Bulletin No. N59 – Passionvine Hopper on the Canopy website here.

Sooty Mould

Sooty mould is extremely hard to remove once it establishes on honey dew excreted by PVH and/or cicada. Two independent trials conducted by Zespri (Prevention of Sooty Mould with TripleX – 2013/2014 – Wade Hunkin and “To reduce or prevent? Sooty mould – it’s a hard nut to crack – Lynda Hawes and Elaine Gould – Dec 2020/January 2021 Kiwifruit Journal”) report that TripleX did not prove to be effective at managing sooty mould in high pressure sites. BioStart (the owners of TripleX) stand by their product and the trial results gained from six trials conducted in 2016/2017. Efficacy may be improved if TripleX is included as part of a wider integrated programme that includes host plant removal, regular pyrethrum sprays targeting nymphs/adults, starting TripleX early and maintaining regular re-applications. In short, TripleX is not a silver bullet.


Generally regarded as a market access pest for Gold3 and Hayward, thrips have the potential to be a significant production pest for Red-19. Recent work completed by Cathy McKenna (Plant and Food Research) confirms that cryptomeria and pine shelter are a key source of thrips with dispersal from the shelter into the orchard occurring from January through April, with thrip numbers on orchard peaking in April.

As thrips are not monitored as part of your KiwiGreen monitoring programme, Zespri has developed a Thrips Monitoring Protocol for growers to follow to determine whether a spray application is justified in summer. The protocol can be found here on the Canopy website.

Figure 5. Example of the monitoring process for edge rows only (Zespri Thrips Monitoring Protocol – Canopy website)


As we move into the post-fruitset period our Psa tools are limited to copper or Aureo Gold® (which can be used within six weeks of fruitset). However, as the weather warms up, the Psa risk reduces so the need for Psa sprays is reduced. Monitor the KVH Psa Risk Model to determine whether a spray is required but remember copper can cause fruit stain particularly if it is wet/humid for a number of days after the application.


Dave Parsons
Grower Liaison / Organic Manager

Slow Boats To America… A Sign Of The Times?

Welcome. I hope you and your families have a safe and enjoyable Christmas and New Year. It is a great time of year to get refreshed, as we rapidly approach the business end of the season.

This month’s article will look at the slow boats to America, Zespri’s decision not to supply GAOB into the China market last season, as well as their current regenerative horticulture focus, and finally the implementation of the KiwiGreen Incentive Scheme.

To refresh your memory, there were two container vessels with OB kiwifruit expected to take three weeks to complete their voyage from New Zealand to the American east coast. The first vessel discharged in mid-November, with fruit having spent 135 days in container. The expectation was that the containers of OB fruit (5x GA / 1 x HW) would be dumped. However, only two containers failed completely (one of each variety), with two passing and two requiring reworking. Although not ideal, it is better than the 100% loss that was anticipated. The second vessel with three GAOB containers has been further delayed and is expected to discharge around mid-December, which will make the fruit 91 days in container, unless it is further delayed.

At the November COKA meeting, Chairman Doug Voss put forward a resolution and got support for laying a complaint with Kiwifruit New Zealand (KNZ) on behalf of organic growers, in relation to the decision by Zespri not to export GAOB to China during the 2021 season. KNZ regulates the “Mitigation Measures” associated with the single desk. The contention of COKA is that Zespri’s decision not to export the fruit to China was discriminatory against the GAOB pool, having cost it 28 cents a tray, whilst it benefited the whole industry. I will keep you posted.

Approximately 12 months ago Zespri, Plant and Food Research and Turners and Growers met with a view to discuss opportunities within their sustainability portfolios. There was agreement that regenerative horticulture was a potential avenue that offered both benefits within the market, to the industry as a whole and to growers at an individual level.

After an initial meeting in March, I attended a Market Perspectives meeting in November and a Growing Practices Workshop in December. The aim of the regenerative horticulture project is to secure funding from the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) through the Sustainable Food and Fibre Futures Fund (SFFF), to explore the potential development of an industry framework, which will be released to growers sometime in March, prior to its submission to MPI.

Although I agree with the premise behind the initiative, and some of the principles are already being imposed on the industry through monitoring of fertiliser use and potential loss of certain sprays, I see several associated fishhooks – those being (in my opinion):

  • There will need to be agreement around the definition of “regenerative horticulture” as it is a term that has not been clearly defined.
  • To gain any integrity within the market it will need to be a certified process. What costs are involved and do growers potentially want another level of compliance?
  • It is being partially driven by perceived consumer demand. If implemented, how will this fruit be differentiated within the marketplace, and will it impact the volume of organic fruit currently available to meet market demand and the returns within those markets?
  • I see direct conflict between our current organic offering and that of potentially “regenerative” certified fruit. The last thing we need is another pool!

Please ensure you have a read of Gordon Skipage’s (Trevelyan’s Head of Technical) article in this newsletter. It outlines the Zespri KiwiGreen Incentive Scheme, valued at 25 cents a tray if certain criteria are met, as it is applicable to all growers irrespective of growing method.

Finally, I am on leave from 23rd December to 26th January. Any problems or queries please call or email Trevelyan’s Head of Grower Services, Mike Perrett, on 027 359 5960 or

Thanks for your continued support and keep those BioGro Certificates coming in.

Sarah Lei
Sustainability Manager

He Tangata – It Is The people

There is an often-quoted Māori proverb or whakataukī which asks He aha te mea nui o te ao?
What is the most important thing in the world? The answer: He tangata, he tangata, he tangata.
It is the people, it is the people, it is the people.

This is a pointed reminder that one of the three pillars of sustainability (alongside economic and environmental) is the social aspect. At Trevelyan’s we translate this into our efforts to “Respect Our People”. Looking after our people has been a key part of the Trevelyan’s business since James’ parents started packing kiwifruit nearly 50 years ago.

Attracting and retaining quality staff remains an ongoing challenge in the kiwifruit industry, especially with the impacts of COVID-19. At Trevelyan’s we put a lot of effort into creating a great place to work. We keep track of our permanent staff voluntary turnover and we have a large number of staff wellness initiatives.

Some of these initiatives include bootcamps, yoga and pilates classes, quiz nights and weekly wellness emails.

In 2020, we invested more than $50,000 into our local community.  We are still finalising the figures for 2021, but our sponsorship this year will be over $60,000. This was given to local schools, health projects, sports, arts and community groups to benefit growers, staff and their families. Our key goal is to help address specific social and environmental needs in our wider community.

We also look to support community groups and organisations who may be able to assist us to connect with local people looking for work. In 2021 we were a key sponsor of the First Response unit for the Rotorua Mountain Bike Club. We recognise that the Rotorua area provides a significant source of labour for both permanent and seasonal staff.

If you wish to apply for sponsorship for your organisation or event you can do so on our website

The talent, commitment, and expertise of our people are what drive our unique company culture. When new challenges come up, we’re confident our people will step up and provide the very best service to our community.

Have a Meri Kirihimete and we look forward to working alongside you to grow an even better future in 2022. Another whakataukī to finish: Mauri mahi, mauri ora – Through work we prosper.


Colin Olesen
TGL Chair

Reviewing The Past And Planning The Future

There are plenty of discussions and meetings occurring in the kiwifruit industry, with reviews of the current season starting and preparing for what some describe as the most challenging season in a decade coming up fast. Your directors’ December meeting was the longest meeting for quite some time, with some matters still to be resolved before Christmas, hence there will be a further meeting this calendar year.

Simon Cook was re-elected Deputy Chair for the next year and I was re-elected Chair. It will be great to serve the Board in that capacity again. A privilege.

The on-shore fruit losses for all varieties are just about finalised for this current season and again, Trevelyan’s results are ahead of industry averages for all varieties. Yes, that is a repeat of what I stated this time last year. And it reinforces what an excellent job TPCL have done year on year. Last year I wrote about the recipe that TPCL work on. And they continue to adjust some ingredients to refine the outcome for our fruit – it is a constant learning curve.

Thank you to all growers that responded to our survey on top up hail insurance. The margin was significant that such insurance was desirable. Because that type of cover is now not readily available in the open market, like it used to be, your directors will look to establish a self-insurance arrangement within our pools. The exact details are still to be finalised, but growers should be aware that it may not be possible to have the cover in place for this growing season. The base Zespri hail insurance arrangement is in place, it will be just the top up TGL aspect that will not be there perhaps till next season.

The present pool splits for all varieties (except Green14), are 50/50 – being 50% pooled and 50% direct to the grower. With the variables facing the coming season such as labour shortages, increasing shipping uncertainties, and a larger crop to harvest, your directors are considering a change in the coming season to 60% pooled and 40% direct to the grower. It is noted that time rates for long-storing fruit have been increased for next season so that aspect of rewarding good-storing fruit will not be dissipated very much at all. Our decision will be advised to all growers as soon as it is available.

I wish you all a safe and refreshing holiday season.


Orchard Management For Next Season – Preparation And Planning Is Critical

At Trevelyan’s Managed Orchards (TMO), we have had a great start to the fruit growing season. With all the challenges around labour, we managed to get all orchards flower bud thinned before pollination, focussing on the properties that had the highest need first. We have since completed a second sweep through to tidy up the numbers, so we match the requirements defined in the orchard management plans. Consequently, the crops are looking really good and the canopies are looking healthy across the portfolio.

This did not happen by accident, it required good staff numbers and planning and procurement of those staff before we needed them. We have employed a dedicated labour co-ordinator for TMO which is an investment that has paid off in that we are able to procure and deal with staff.

Our strategy is to directly employ our staff where possible, so they are accountable to our managers rather than the labour hire companies we deal with. We find that even using those contractor labour suppliers, our permanent staff still need to supervise and train the staff provided by them, so we may as well employ people directly and try to build some constancy into our teams. So far it is working well for us.

From next winter we are looking for more orchards to manage. We have capacity within our current team so would like to reach out to growers and ask – If you are considering orchard management for the next growing season, please get in touch now and let us know because as mentioned, planning is key. We would be happy to meet with you and discuss what we offer with no obligation. We can let you know how we operate, provide you with information that you may require, answer any questions you may have, and if you decide we can handle your management next year, we can start planning staff requirements and allocation/recruitment for you.

Historically, if growers are looking to move to management the following season, they tend to wait until after harvest before they make those orchard management decisions. But with the demands for staff we have this year (and we don’t think it will be any easier next season), we are asking growers to come forward now so we can ensure we hit next winter with the resource we need to get the job done.

For more information on orchard management please call Adam Franklin on 027 537 0016 or Dan McKenney on 027 214 8692.

Grower Services’ Team Availability Over The Holiday Period

Dave Parsons               24/12/21 to 26/01/22
Dan Green                     24/12/21 to 07/01/22
Marty Blake                  24/12/21 to 10/01/22
Amy Willoughby          24/12/21 to 04/01/22
Michael Blattmann     24/12/21 to 04/01/22
Brian Hodge                  24/12/21 to 09/01/22
Peter Crotty                   24/12/21 to 28/01/22
Christine Broad            24/12/21 to 04/01/22
Mike Perrett                   24/12/21 to 16/01/22

If you require assistance over this period and your primary Grower Rep is on leave, please feel free to contact:

Michael Blattmann – 027 822 9182
Dan Green – 027 552 2506
Mike Perrett – 027 359 5960